Role of the United Nations in the Implementation of Human Rights
Article 55, UN Charter of human rights has following features-
(a) With a view to creation of condition of stability and well being which are necessary for peaceful and welfare of well being and create friendly relation among nation based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self determination of people,
(b) Higher standard of living, full employment and condition of economic and social progress and development,
(c) Solution of international economic, social health and related problem and international, cultural and educational cooperation, and
(d) Universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedom for all without any discrimination on the bases of caste, color, creed, sex, religion etc.
Article 55 of Charter provides right to life, liberty and security to person. Eleanor Roosevelt drafted the Commission on Human Rights created in 1946 and Roosevelt declared that “the world could not have peace or an atmosphere in which peace could grow, unless we recognize the right of individual human being their importance, their… dignity.” UN General Assembly create programmer of Advisory Service, Technical Cooperation in field of Human Rights in 1955. It creates many forms of assistance offered by the programme consist national plan of action, constitutional electoral, reform assistance and strengthening national institution.
Thus, Human Rights is vital element within the United Nation system of comprehensive assistance for strengthening of rule of law on the basis of UN standard embodied the human standard of organisation.”
As a result, all above the international doctrine and institution which make evolution and protection of human rights. Its strengthening international mechanism which protect human rights and to extend their jurisdiction to all the part of world.
I n 1946, the United Nation Charter specified one of organisation goal as promotion and encouragement of human rights. The objective was clarified in 1948 when the General Assembly adopted Universal declaration of human rights. It was proclaimed as common standard of achievement for all people and promote respect for these rights and freedom.
Article 30 of the declaration state that “one of goals of education should be strengthening respect for human rights.” The human rights covenant developed by United Nations and coming to effect in 1976 to formalize tied basis in the international law of right declared in 1948 as elaborated upon those rights. In this view, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights placed the educational objective of strengthening respect for human rights in a cluster of related learning objectives.
Article 13, Covenant says that “Education shall be directed to full development of human personality and to person own sense of dignity.” Education help full development of human personality also promotes human rights. There are larger goals the development of mechanism at national level for the evolution of realization of human rights. The human rights make concepts of justice, equality, peace, dignity and responsibilities.
The Bill of rights, Habeas Corpus, Magna Carta is all the landmarks of human rights struggle. This struggle reached on international stature for first time, with the establishment of League of Nation after First World War. The human rights got crystallized image with the formation of UN in 1945.
The UNO Declaration of Human rights marks the first cornerstone of international movement for human rights. The main purpose of human rights was defined as “Every individual has the right to his intellect, skill and inspiration in order to fulfill his physical, mental, social, economic and spiritual needs to enable himself to lead life of human dignity.”
The UN decade for Human rights education 1995-2005. The UN decade call for various global actions at various level to promote, protect and ensure the inherent dignity of human life and it is also powerful reminder to member state and people across the world of the human rights instruments to plan for future.
The United Nation has contributed the recognition and importance of human rights education, the world council for curriculum and instruction declared in 1970 in Preamble of its constitution. As member of world community, educator have a responsibility to ensure that education contribute to promotion of equity, peace and universal realization of human rights.
These human rights taken as Global Values and making attainment of human rights to serve as catalyst for attainment of better world, international solidarity, cultural, religious, social and spiritual heritage of humanity… living together. The 21st century is destined to promote human dignity and fundamental rights and usher in the New Order to peace and prosperity for all mankind.
The generation will be grateful to United Nations for world conference on human rights in Vienna, Austria in June 1993, Vienna declaration and programme of action. Thank to persistent efforts of NGO’s, UN proclaimed the UN decade for human rights education, 1995-2005 in pursuance of deliberation of Vienna world conference. All these human rights conferences gave new vision of global action for human rights into next century.
The vision of UN that the human rights must become common language of all humanity and it become human rights literate and participate in decision that determine our lives. United nation for elevating human rights education to priority in national and international agenda. The main aim and objective of UN is to promote Unity and solidarity of human race and main aim is to implement the concept of Vaisudhaiva Kutumbakam which means whole world is family.
The World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI) in Dec. 1995 and main agenda was UN decade for human rights education. WCCI proclaimed that Education have responsibility to ensure that educators contribute to promotion of peace, equity and universal realization of human rights.
Curriculum and instructional programmes of all the education enterprises for youth and adults should aim to develop social respect and awareness. The state should strive to eradicate illiteracy and should direct education toward the development of human personality and strengthening for human rights and fundamental freedom.
Human rights cannot secure without their being determination and universal conscience, on part of people to uphold each other’s rights, in full understanding and just demand of individual, the state and the international order. Human rights can not achieve unless there is absolute freedom from fear.
The United Nation have make better appreciation of objectives of human rights as its main aim is mutual understanding and confidence and safeguard human rights and fundamental freedom. The equal right of men and women and of nation’s league and small shall be respected.
The dignity and worth of human person is not merely a philosophical concept and these human rights should protected by law. The members of United Nations, having pledged themselves to promote universal respect for and observance of human rights and if they fail then they have to face world opinion.
There should be promotion and protection of human rights in community, national and as well as international level. As there is widespread discrimination and people against people on racial, ethnic grounds. There is great frustration and anger among people who did not have enough food to eat, proper clothes to wear and homes to live and suffer illness, diseases and many other problems.
So, United Nation safeguard these rights of people as principles laid down in the charter of United Nations, Universal declaration of rights, Universal declaration on eliminations of all forms of racial discrimination and granting independence to colonial countries and people.
The United nations firmly believe that racial discrimination and apartheid are denial of human rights, of fundamental freedoms and of justice and they are an affront to human dignity. All these racial discrimination and apartheid whenever practiced constitute a serious impediment to economic and social development and make obstacles and difficulties to international peace and cooperation.
United Nations thus initiate programmers and instruments to eliminate the racial discrimination and apartheid. The United Nation is self governed, independent for all and abolition of racial discrimination. As right of people to self-determination and affirmation of racial equality is one of the main principles of Charter and this racial discrimination (difference on the bases on colour) is also prohibited by law.
The brotherhood of men proclaimed by Universal declaration of Human rights and to create awareness about this “International day for Elimination of Racial discrimination is also celebrated. They would be advancing towards the fullest vision to all men to noble mind of all ages, colour, beliefs, etc.
The main aim of UN is to eliminate all type of racial discriminations, apartheid and created a feeling of oneness, brotherhood and maintains peace and security at national and international level. It also creates friendly relation among new nation (who were become independent after a great struggle) and former masters and also with other members of world organization.
So, all these newly independent countries take their rightful place among the sovereign nations of world. The UN going to alter the situation the economic picture of world in terms of production, trade, development and economic growth.
The UN try to bring peaceful means to end of colonialism and emancipation of all people who are still living under dependent status and try to struggle for their independence. This makes contribution to realization of principle of equality and peace which is enshrined in the Charter of UN and promotes maintenance of peace. All these countries which got independence from dependent status faced various social, economic and political instability.
The Charter of UN was to promote the development of Non-self governing territories to the status of nationhood. The decade following Second World War saw most of countries of Asia gains independence from colonial rule. The UN had course given its consistent support for principle of self-determination and has great deal to encourage and to assist the emergence of dependent peoples.
The adoption in 1960 on the declaration on the granting of independence of colonial people was regarded as constructive achievement. The United Nations make realization of other purpose and objective of Charter as regards as dependent people.
In Africa, mainly there is practice of apartheid and they use words of the addressing social concern. The covenant say further “the education shall enable all person to participate effectively in free society, promoting understanding, tolerance, friendship among all nation and further activities of UN for maintenance of peace.” United nation peace-building operation Offer new and promising opportunities to develop and apply a general approach to human rights education.
A new direction of operational support for human rights education emerged with the Security Council’s decisions to implement comprehensive political settlement to regional conflicts and its recognition that human rights can provide the normative framework for institutional modification and constitutional reforms as well as self-determination through free and fair election.
With the end of cold-war and greatly enhanced expectation on the United Nation. The Security Council referred more and more frequently to human rights. The framework of UN Peace Operation set on in “Agenda for peace”, it mainly referred to preventive diplomacy, peace making, peace keeping.
The restoration of order, the possible destruction of weapons, repatriates refugees, advisory and training support for security personal, monitoring election, advancing efforts to protect human rights, promoting formal and informal processes of political participation.
All these function of UN help to support for transformation of deficient national structure and capabilities and for strengthening of new democratic institution. Human rights education is especially in UNTAC. UNTAC are mainly work for promotion of Human rights.
The United Nation commission on Human rights has recognized UNESCO specific role by requesting it consider “the desirability of envisioning the systematic study and development of independent scientific discipline of human rights, taking into account the principle legal system of world, with a view of facilitating the understanding, comprehension, study and teaching of human rights. All these rights also have duties on other side; these are two sides of coin. Human rights institution may be either governmental or non-governmental.
Non-governmental are private organization, which played an important and considerable role in the field of human rights. It was essentially their action which resulted in the establishment, under the terms of the Charter of United Nation, of specific human rights body.
It makes promotion and protection of human rights by identifying the violation of human rights, the extent to which such procedure are used and are adequate to meet the needs of those whose rights are violation and the situation where human rights are being violated.
As the concern for human rights and fundamental freedom has assumed a global dimension and is of vital significance to world community. These Human rights has impact the quality and fulfillment of life of societies in all nations and ensures the prevalence of freedom, justice.
These NGOs performed different functions-collections of information, education, legislation, preventing human rights violation and rendering humanitarian assistance, solidarity and working in area of social rights. These NGOs intensify their efforts to promote widest dissemination of international instrument on human rights and full access to legal system for all sectors of society as well as to knowledge of existence of machinery-national, international and regional for protection of rights.
The UN instrument UNESCO, ILO played a great role. UNESCO and NGOs in human rights education, devote larger resources to regional meeting. Those NGOs promote acceptance and implementation of national and international codes for conduct of law enforcement and promote exchange of experience regarding the declaration “the subjection of people to alien subjugation, domination and exploitation constitute the denial of fundamental human rights, is contrary to the charter and is impediment to world peace and cooperation.”
The Mount Abu Conference-agenda for the remaining 90 months of UN decade for Human Rights education. After world council for curriculum and instruction 8th world conference at Amritsar in Dec. 1995, this Mount Abu conference is a major national assembly to formulate plan for human rights education. It has main objectives to educate people about their rights by-
(a) Open human rights education cell in school and colleges to associate the younger generation with this campaign.
(b) Mass media and other progress of campaign to make this mass awareness.
(c) Associate with National Commission on Human Rights and State Commission for promoting human rights awareness and help to render in case of human rights violation.
(d) Universities should organises training courses, seminar to create a feeling of oneness and have complete knowledge and importance of their rights as well as duties.
(e) UN agencies and other UN instruments help them to find resources and create implementation of these Human rights and to benefit people at grassroots level.
(f) Help the youth to established new non-governmental organisation for help people at grassroots level. The future of our country is in the hand of coming generation and youth of today. So the most important is to create enthusiasm and awareness about their rights and also to educate other about this human rights education.
UN and its instruments work for human rights education. It also played a great role in the evolution of human rights. Its entire instrument like UNESCO, ILO, UNICEF work for protecting and promoting human rights education. UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Education).
It concerned for international understanding, cooperation and peace and education relating to human right and fundamental freedom, was made in wake of big and small nation. UNESCO is merely education of scientific and cultural aspect. The technology and science have helped to know a world and make international peace and understanding.
UNESCO makes an international dimension and global perspective in education at all level. It makes an understanding and awareness of the increasing interdependence between people and nation and makes respect for all people, their cultures, civilization, values and culture of nation. It creates education for personality development and makes elimination of discrimination.
UNICEF is one of the UN instrument for welfare of children. It helps in improving condition of children and makes protection of their rights. It creates an environment for children and help in their socio-economic development and provides free primary and secondary education to children.
ILO is also one of the organization make protection of rights. It helps in social, economic development of working class. Knowledge of work done by UNO, UNICEF, UNESCO, IMF, ILO and other international agencies. They make protection and promotion of human rights and help in bringing better today and tomorrow for humans.
United Nations and all its instruments have a significant role in evolution and as well as in protection of these rights.