The Adoption of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action for Human Rights
The organs and the specialized agencies are related to human rights should therefore further enhance the coordination of their activities based on consistent and objectives application of international human rights instrument.
Effective international measure to guarantee and monitor the implementation of human rights standards should be taken in respect of people under foreign occupation and effective legal protection against the violation of their human rights should be in accordance with human rights norms and international law, particularly the Geneva convention relating to protection civilian person in time of war, of 14 Aug, 1947 and other applicable international law and humanitarian law.
In framework, while significant of national and international law, various regional particularities and in regard of political, social culture system to promote the human rights and fundamental freedom. The efforts of United Nation system toward the universal respect and observance of human rights contribute to stability and well being necessary for peaceful and friendly relation among nations and to improved conditions for peace and security as well social and economic development, in conformity with charter of United Nation.
Democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedom are interdependent and mutually, reinforcing. Democracy is based on freely expressed will of their political, economic, social and cultural system and for their full participation in all aspect of life.
In context of promotion and protection of human rights at national and international level should be universal and conducted without condition attached. The international community should support the strengthening and promotion of democracy, development and respect of human rights in entire world.
The world conference of human rights reaffirms that least developed countries committed to process of democratization and’ economic reforms, many of which are in Africa, should be supported by international community in accordance to succeed their transition to economic development.
Right development as universal and inalienable rights and it integral part of fundamental human rights. The declaration of right of development stated the human person is central subject of development. While development, facilitates the enjoyment of all rights lack of development may not invoked to justify the abridgement of internationally recognized human rights.
State should cooperate with each other in ensuring the development and eliminating obstacles to development. The international community should promote an effective international cooperation for realization of rights development and eliminate all the obstacles in the development.
The world conference on human rights may make efforts to help alleviate the external dept. burden of developing countries; poverty etc. and elimination must be higher priority of international community. The conference gave higher priority to eliminate all forms of racism, racial discrimination, intolerance and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and waters in prevention of illicit dumping.
There is need of state and international organization, in cooperation with non-governmental organization, to create favorable condition at national, regional, international level to ensure enjoyment of human rights government, group’s institution, inter-government, non-government organization to intensify their efforts in cooperating and coordinating their activities against evils.
It tries to fulfill to meet equitably the development and environment needs to present and future generation. It makes right to enjoy the benefit of scientific progress and continuing acts of violence aimed at undermining the quest for peaceful dismantling of apartheid.
The practices of terrorism in all its forms caused the destruction of human rights, fundamental freedom democracy threatening social security of states. The states should take necessary steps to combat terrorism and to prevent cooperation, peace and order.
The world conference deals with human rights of women and of girl child are their rights are integral of inalienable part of universal human rights. The full and equal participation of women in political social, economic, cultural life at national, regional level, eradication of forms of discrimination of grouped of sex.
Gender based violence and all forms of sexual harassment and exploitation, including those resulting form cultural prejudice and international trafficking are incompatible with human dignity and worth of human person and must be eliminated.
This can be achieved by legal measures and through national action and international cooperation in such as social, economic development education, health care, social support for an integral part of United Nations human rights activities including promotion of human rights instruments relating to women. All the institution, inter-governmental and non-government organization to intensify their efforts for protection human rights of women and girl child.
The conference considering the importance of promotion and protection of right belonging to minorities and indigenous people and this bring to political and social stability in which person live. It reaffirms the obligation of states to ensure that person belonging to minorities may exercise fully and effectively all human rights and fundamental freedom without an discrimination and in full equality before the law in accordance with the declaration on right of person belonging to national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities.
It also recognizes the inherent dignity and unique contribution of indigenous people to development and plurality of society and affirms the commitment of international community to their cultural social, economic well beings and their enjoyment of the fruits of sustainable development.
State should ensures full and free participation of indigenous people for the development and it further bring political and social stability of society and state in which they live state should take effective step for bring the human rights protection and respect for fundamental freedom or the bases of equality and non-discrimination and recognized the values of their culture and social organization.
The world conference of human rights affirms the extreme poverty and social exclusion constitute a violation of human dignity and urgent step are necessary to know about problem of development, to put an end to extreme poverty and social exclusion and promote enjoyment of fruits of social progress. It is necessary to promote human rights of poorest and to foster participation of poor in decision making and combat extreme poverty.
The poverty should be abolished for socio-economic development. The world conference on human rights recognizes that in view of complexities of global refugee’s crises and in accordance with charter of United Nation relevant international instrument and international solidarity and in the spirit of border sharing, a comprehensive approach by international community are concerned and relevant organizations bearing in mandate of United Nation high commissioner for refuges.
Through inter-governmental, non-governmental organization find lasting solution to question related to voluntary and safe rehabilitation. In accordance with charter of United Nation and principle of humanitarian law further emphasizes the importance need for humanitarian assistance to victim of natural disaster and man made disaster.
The world conference of human rights, welcome early ratification of convention on ‘right of child by large number of states and noting the recognition of human rights of children in world declaration on the survival for children, urges universal ratification of convention by 1995 and it is effective implementation by states through effective implementation of legislative, administrative measures and allocation to maximum extent of available resources.
The national and international programmers should be strengthened for protection and defense of children including abandoned children girl child, street children economically and sexually exploited children. The international cooperation and solidarity should be promoted to support the implementation of convention and right of the child should be priority in United Nation system wide action. It stress for full and harmonious development should grow up in family environment which accordingly merit broader protection.
It make special protection for equal enjoyment of all Haitian rights and fundamental freedom by disabled person, migrant work to ensure the participation of those among them who are interested in finding a solution their problem and violation of their rights. Every state should provide an effective framework for remedies to redress human rights violations.
The administration of justice including law enforcement and prosecution agencies and especially, an independent judiciary and legal profession in full conformity with applicable standard contained in international human rights instruments are essential to full and non discriminatory realization of human rights and indispensable to process of democracy and sustainable development. Institution concerned with administration of justice should be properly funded and increased level of technical and financial assistance provided by international community.
It is incumbent upon the United Nation to make use of special programmes of the advisory services on a priority basis for the achievement of a strong and independent administration of justice. It concerned about continuing human rights violation in all part of world in disregard of standard as contained in international humanitarian law and international human rights instruments and sufficient remedies for the victims.
It also punished the perpetrator of crimes such as rape of women in war situation, causing exploitation of people and mass exodus of refugees and displaced person. The conference therefore call upon state and all parties to armed conflict strictly to observe international humanitarian law as set forth in Geneva Convention of 1949 and other rules and principle of international law as well as minimum standard of protection of human rights laid in international convention.
The world conference on human rights reaffirms the rights of victim to be assisted by humanitarian organization as set forth in Geneva Convention of 1949 and other relevant instrument of international humanitarian law and call for the safe and timely access for such assistance.
It also expresses it dismay and condemnation that gross and systematic violation and situation that the constitute serious obstacles to full enjoyment of all human rights continue to occurs in different part of world. The violation and obstacles includes torture, inhuman or cruel treatment, all forms of racism, racial discrimination and apartheid, alien domination, poverty, hunger, illiteracy, social economic, cultural rights, terrorism intolerance, discrimination against women and lack of rule of law.
It call upon state to refrain form any unilateral measures not in accordance with international law and United Nation that create obstacles to trade relation among state and impedes the full realization of human rights set forth in universal declaration and human rights, in particular rights of everyone to standard of living adequate for their health and well beings including for and medical care, having and necessary social services. It reaffirms the importance of ensuring the universality objectivity and non-selectively of consideration of human rights issues.
The world conference on human rights reaffirms that states are duty- bound, as stipulated in human rights instruments. To ensure human rights and fundamental freedom and respect by education. As education is an instrument strengthening respect for human rights is it promotes peace, friendly relation.
Tolerance, understanding, cooperation and encourage the development of United Nation activities in pursuance of these objectives. Therefore education on human rights and dissemination of proper information played an important role in promotion and practically respect for human rights irrespective of discrimination of the bases of caste, color, creed, sex, languages, religion etc. and this integrated in education policies at national and international level.
The increased effort are taken by government, United Nation and other multilateral organization to increased the sources allocated to programme aiming establishment and strengthening of national legislation, national institution and related infrastructure which uphold the rule of law and democracy, human rights awareness through training teaching education people participation civil society.
The establishment and strengthening of national institution played an constructive role in capacity of competent authorities, their role in remedying human rights violation, in dissemination of human rights education and information.
The establishment and strengthening of national institution having regard to principle relating of status of national institution and recognizes it is rights to each state to choose the framework which is best suited to particular needs of national level. The filed and effective implementation of United Nation activities to protect human rights must reflected high importance accorded to human rights.
Some regional arrangement and non-governmental organization play an important role in protection of human rights. The world conference endorsees efforts to strengthen these regional arrangements to increase their effectiveness and stressing the important of cooperation with United Nation activities.
The non-governmental organization at national international regional level plays an important role in promotion of human rights. It creates public awareness of human rights standard setting lies with state, to conduct education training and research in the field.
The conference also appreciated the contribution of non-governmental organization to this process and continued dialogue between governmental and no-governmental organization. They also free to carry out human rights activities with in the framework of national law without any interference.
Involvement of media, freedom of press, impartial information about humanitarian issues.
The international world conference of human rights has following objectives:
(a) To identify obstacle to progress and way of overcoming them.
(b) To evaluate programs in human rights since the adoption of universal declaration of human rights
(c) To examine ways to improve the implementation of human rights standard.
(d) To examine the relationship between development and enjoyment by all human being of social, economic and civil and political rights.
(e) To make recommendation to improve both the effectiveness of UN activities and mechanism and needed resources to achieve goals.
(f) To evaluate the effectiveness of method and mechanism used by UN.
This following objective will further lead to following human rights outcomes:
(a) The universal application of UN norms
(b) Reaffirmation of international standard
(c) Improved implementation
(d) A way of mobilizing all sector of UN system in the effort to promote human rights.
NGOs wanted to see government reporting to conference on its precise national plans for implementing human rights. They are crucial actor especially for grass root action that directly indirectly attends to social and economic rights and they emphasizes for betterment of individual under legal norms.
It have helped to create a climate of opinion in international relational generally sympathetic to the human rights NGOs have helped restricted and thus transform the idea of state sovereignty. The states like Iraq that engages in gross and systematic violation of human rights is not afforded the normal preparative’s that stem form the principle of sovereignty.
These NGOs must negotiate to access those in needs and provide relief and assistance in armed conflict and complex emergencies. The relief agencies must prove ides an accurate assessment of needs these NGOs must mobilize relief in timely and effective way. Red Cross has their own means for mobilization. They also deliver assistance which is timely and cost effective way.
These relief agencies have to engage in evaluation of past action and planning for further NGOs that advocate human rights ideas, that implement the rights to humanitarian assistance and contribute human rights in sustainable human development have imparted both public authorities and private individual in different ways. These organization provide much of information and implementing the human rights standard and make various development program at grasses level.
NGOs wanted to see human rights given a higher profile within the United Nation and integrated into all of it relevant activities. It makes rapid response mechanism established to deals with urgent situation and make closer cooperation and coordination between those UN bodies responsible for human rights.
They make closer cooperation and cooperation between the traditional bodies that deals with human rights and greatly increased UN peacekeeping activities some of which involve unprecedented human rights protection programs and make greater impartiality in dealing with human rights, possibly involve the creating of commissioner or court of human rights society.
Education is the first and most important that as given to the good citizens. Through education, they know all the values like self- determination, tolerance, and understanding and make individual as social being and they learn to adjust and harmonize his own unique interest.
The people become more aware about their rights and duties and its importance. They also realized their rights and obligation in adequate manner. These individual become integral can be able to produce democratic citizens. As India has adopted the democratic way of living, she will be able to achieve her end only through the participation of her citizen who is expected to posses the desired qualities of democratic citizen.
It involves social and moral qualities. The education innate “wrathfulness of individual is most significant form point of view of democratic education and makes full and all around development of individual personality. The secondary education commission (1953) and the education commission in 1996 work for trained and educate citizen the for social, moral qualities and cultivar the spirit of large hearted tolerance and self-determination.
Equality of educational opportunity is prerequisite for a socialist society. There are various committees and commission has also suggested socialistic measures for widespread education. The Kothari Commission has observed.
The one of the important social objectives of education is to equalize opportunity enabling the backward and weaker classes like SC’s and ST’s and it help in improving their condition. Every society has main aims to improve that lot of common man and cultivate all available talent, must ensure the progressive equality of opportunity to all section of the population.
This is only guarantee for building up of egalitarian human society in which exploitation of the will be minimized and it values social Justice. “To ensure equal opportunity for education, adequate number of scholarships were given to children who can’t afford such scholarships help in their development and make better tomorrow.
The national policy for education (NPE) introduced number of socialist programmes in fields of education. At secondary education stage, children with the special talents or aptitudes provides opportunity at faster pace, by giving good quality of education irrespective of their capacity to pay Navodaya Vidyalaya was one of the great efforts to serve social Justice, national integration and excellence. As they provide free education to needed children and the skill, understanding, values were developed in these children.
Secular education should be taken as question on knowledge and spirit in an objective and tolerant manner. The true secular education helps in creating understanding of various religion and give importance to all religion, without any distinction. It must be building in individual potentiality not blind faith and biased attitudes.
Secular education helps in creating feeling of secularism and all individual give respect to all religion and it creates feeling of oneness, brotherhood and peace. Promotion and implementation of human rights can be possible only through secular and democratic living based on rights and duties of citizen. Their further create peace and harmony amongst the people of India.
Article 26 of universal declaration of human rights proclaims that “everyone has right to education”. To achieve these goals that main principles are that education shall be free at elementary storage and this elementary education is must for the children.
It undertakes activities for the maintenance of peace. The technical and professional shall be making generally available and parents have prior rights to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. Article 26, attempts should be made by nation to educate children at various level and human rights are understand young citizen. The education to scheduled caste and scheduled tribes has various aim that:
(a) To give free education to children below the age of 14.
(b) Location of school building, Balwadis and other education centre to facilitate full participation of SC’s.
(c) Pre-metric scholar ship schemes for children of families engaged in occupation and such as flaying, tanning to be made applicable form class.
(d) Recruitment of teachers from scheduled castes.
(e) The utilization of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana resources and make education facilities like opening of primary schools construction of school building.
(f) Residential schools, including Ashrams Schools will be established on large side and it make education for ST’s youth and this help in training and encouragement of large number of SC’s and ST’s children.
(g) Incentives schemes will be formulated for scheduled tribes take care of needs and life styles, scholarship for higher education will emphasizes on technical profession courses special remedies to remove psychological, social impediments will be provide to improve their performance in various courses.
(h) Anganwadis, Adult education centres will opened for educating these SC’s and ST’ children. These education centres are mainly opened in the area predominantly inhibited by these people.
(i) Constant innovation to find new method to increase the participation of these SC’s and ST’s in educational process.
Education facilities are also provided to physical and mentally handicapped. So that they can live their life with courage and confidence. Education helped in their development and they can be able to live normal life special schools with hostels and vocational training help in educating these disabled will be encourage in very possible manner.
This education is harmonious and progressive development of man innate power. It is development of all these capacity in the individual which enable him to control his environment and fulfill their possibilities education help in society political cultural development and it is capacity of feel pleasure and create sound mind in sound body.
It bring all round and harmonious development and it is capacity of fell pleasure and create sound mind in sound body. It bring all round harmonious development of men as it direct the child capacities, attitudes, interest, target, needs into most desirable channels.
In word of Lodge, “Life is education and education is life”. Edward “education is the transmission of life, by living to the living”.
The Vienna declaration and plan of action is also has one of the main objective that to give education to all as human rights education include peace, democracy, development, social justice in order to create understanding, awareness, oneness and which further strengthening commitment to human rights.
Education is system of development of human life. As both human rights and human life and closely related. They are connected to each other education is one the means to make development of human inner abilities and its life. There is great impact of knowledge on human rights that all the problems like dowry; satipratha, child marriage, infanticide, inequality, social discrimination will be eradicated.
Today as there is UN decade for Human Rights Education (HRE) – 1995-2005. This proclamation of UN decade for human rights 1995 has placed the long felt need of human rights education in much sharper focus today. It is one of the landmark and most powerful reminder to member states and people across the world for human rights instruments to plan for future.
The UN decade is one of the important step for promotion, protection of human rights and inherent human dignity. The United Nation and its instrument played a great role in recognition and the importance of human rights education WCCI (world council for circular and instruction) 1970. The UN role in ensuring education contributes to maintenance of peace, equality and universal realization of Human values and rights.
The world confederation of organization of the teaching profession, UN human rights peace price, winner of Noble peace prize reiterates it commitment form time to time, to rights and duties of teaching community and to human rigs and values in general. The people decade for the human rights education 1991 -2001 has organized human rights education.
Human rights are taken as global values applicable world wide as multiple, fundamental base control to totality of human existence. The attainment of human rights is ‘deal goal aspiration of throughout the world. It make meaningful to life equity, social justice, human resource development, humanitarian law, democracy, rule of law, peace and make eradication of poverty, illiteracy, disease etc.
UN decade lead to long term vision as global ideals human rights education in all educational institution, formal and non-formal supported development, poverty alleviation, empowerment of women, children, worker sustainable development and it work on that “all humanity with become human rights literate and ensure human dignity to all humanity.
Human rights education is catalyst for attainment of better world order and it is integral part of education. It bring social, cultural, spiritual heritage of community all together. This human right education work as an instrument for sustainable, right, duties values, social, economic, rural, spiritual, and maximize the potential of people in life as whole.
The human rights are basically related to right of life- food, clothing shelter, protection against smoking drugs addiction, torture, harassment, discrimination, exploitation harm life, protection of life against self- destruction.
There is implementation of human rights by making human rights education to have better tomorrow and bright future literacy help in creating awareness of human rights and brings knowledge, understanding, information empowerment human development, solidarity, commitment and implantation enforcement by establishment of human rights education cell and celebration of international human rights day and human rights activities birthday Jubilees create human rights watch raised with HR commission, authorities.